Published: 06 December 2016
In the Republic of Macedonia in the period from 2007 to 2015 a total of 90,494 criminal offenders were convicted.
According to the State Statistical Office the total population in 2015 is 2 529 329. The proportion of men is 50.2% and women 49.8%.
Young citizens of Ohrid who moved to Skopje, but also beyond the borders of our country, as reasons for leaving the hometown mention: the impossibility of employment in the profession, low salaries, economic and social reasons, and low incomes that do not allow normal and dignified life.
Migrants from Macedonia, often move to Germany, the Netherlands, Serbia, Australia, America or England. Respondents left Ohrid because of better paid work and schooling. Some of them, unfortunately, left because they can not be treated, because of the specifics of the diseases for which the state is unable to perform. Some went to accompany a spouse, but after they left, they solved the problem of employment very quickly. Not a few of those who, as the reason for the migration cite the easy way to solve the housing problem for a short time, but also the ability to find well-paid job that provides great opportunities for a better life. Most of the respondents said they would not return to live in Ohrid, unless the living conditions change drastically. They would come on vacation, to visit their families, or possibly after they become pensioners, would return here to live a peaceful retirement. Otherwise, mostly we are talking about people with higher education. A small part of the respondents who founded a family and live in Ohrid, stayed here because of the family, the beauty of the city, clean air, sea and serenity. Those who are in Ohrid and which won’t leave, are mostly employed in public enterprises, which are the largest employers in Ohrid.
The mayor of Ohrid, Nikola Bakracheski, said that Ohrid is a city with the highest unemployment rate in Macedonia and it is 10% more than the average in Macedonia. What Bakracheski succeeded from the previous local authority-as he himself says, is over-employment in the municipality and public enterprises, which according to the percentage is 5% to 7% higher than the standards for hiring and employment in public administration and public enterprises, which are established by the local self-government. Bakracheski noted that unemployment in Ohrid reaches up to 40%, and is 22% lower than GDP per capita of the average in the country.
The Ambassador of the Republic of Macedonia in the European Union, Aleksandar Nikolovski, said that migration is massively in Ohrid, but mentions the fact that the government is seriously working on this issue, by implementing projects that create new jobs. As an example that Ohrid is part of a government program to reduce unemployment, and thus the retention of young people in the municipality, lists the foreign investment of “ODV Electric” and “KOSTAL” who are employing young people, and that their number is expected to increase.
Despite these considerations, prof. Jovan Stojanoski, from the Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality in Ohrid, sees the migration as a quantitative indicator of what is happening in the municipality, but also in the country. According to him, no one would migrate from one place to another, if economic, social and other conditions are met.
The reason for this, Stojanoski cites the fact that in Ohrid there are no real major investments, except those of “ODV Electric” and “KOSTAL” and emphasized that one cannot survive from tourism because the season is very short. Stojanoski thinks the rules in the economy should be respected, according to which we should refer to the labor force, because it moves the economy forward. With this trend of migration, Ohrid will become a city without young people, will lose the quantity and the quality of development of the city, and it will affect the change of the negative demographic processes.
And Vasvi Doko, Professor and Chairman of DPA branch in Ohrid, talks about another dimension associated with emigration, which is that it is changing the demographics. According to Doko, it is a public secret that many of the youth from Ohrid live and work abroad “illegally”, and are not yet unregistered from the habitats in which they live. According to him, Ohrid, a city that ten years ago had between 50,000 and 60,000 residents, according to the latest unofficial data there are now more than 35,000 residents, and the phenomenon of mass migration to Western European countries and overseas is raising concerns. As reasons for emigration he lists the political and economic situation in the city and the country in general, as well as events that are continually occurring, and create a climate of frustration and inability of the youth to express their professional potential.
Jone Stankoski teacher at the elementary school “Zhivko Chingo” in the village Velgoshti, Ohrid, alerts that emigration abroad leads to a permanent reduction in the number of students. According to him, the lack of new investments is a problem that leads to emigration, because young people have nowhere to realize their professional potential. Stankoski indicates that most of the employees are in the administration, a small portion in the private sector, and most are unemployed or have already left the country.
Sociologist and expert on demographic policy, professor Ilija Aceski is confident that the trend of emigration will continue, and warns that Ohrid could face a process of changing the demographic structure in the future. Professor Aceski says that the fact that young people emigrate raises concerns, those who only enter into life, are immediately faced with psychological sobriety that real life is not here. Ohrid lives only a few months from tourism, and during the other months is empty. The change in the demographic structure according to Professor Aceski is dramatic. With this trend, in 20 years 50% of people in Ohrid will have more than 60 years, and the question is what will be the number of young people. According to Aceski, although the city is visited by people from different countries of the world, maybe that openness, in psychological sense, creates perspective that the good life is somewhere else. To live from tourism, it means to serve someone and for citizens of Ohrid that is inherent, says Aceski.
From the Youth Council of Ohrid, which made a series of activities for involving young people in everyday social processes, say that they are concerned about the trend of moving out of town. Emigration is a global problem that brings together a number of countries that are in the period of transition for a long time. This phenomenon is evident in the country in recent years. Of course, the Municipality of Ohrid is not immune to this negative trend, which put the city on the highest place by number of emigrated youths.
- We try to educate young people and to encourage them to stay in the city and in the country, says Dimche Kanevche, president of the Youth Council Ohrid. Kanevche says that they’re working on several programs to treat youth from Ohrid, Resen and Struga. They organize visits to institutions and organizations, organize days of open doors, debates with focus groups and round tables, and all that with the goal to learn about the institutions and to establish better communication between the young people and the institutions. He believes that it is necessary an organized and strategic approach to overcoming the problem of emigration.
The problem is identified, the alarm is turned on. Local and central government are on the move.
The information is obtained from a group of 30 people who moved to Skopje and outside the Republic of Macedonia, contacted on the phone or through social networks to discuss this topic.
The information provided by certain authorities were taken by journalists Miki Trajkovski and Vesna Bashtovanska, which in the past period have worked on this issue.
The analysis is made by the Youth Council of Ohrid.
The content of this analysis is the responsibility of MOST and do not always reflect the views and opinions of donors.
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